KIRUMBA M.K.1 and RICARDO R.V.1*
An investigation study was carried out to ascertain the level of conformity with the standards for reinforcing steel bars used in the construction industry of Kinshasa. Thus, the British Standard BS 4449: 1997 was used. Reinforcing steel bars found in Kinshasa market, then tested, came from eleven companies. Tensile test was conducted on sixty-five samples selected from the available and most used reinforcing steel bars. Ten specimens were used for every company diameter size. After testing, only sixteen over sixty-five specimens (25%) satisfied fully the standard requirements. None of the companies did fully comply with all code requirements. In addition, in respect to the measured diameter most of specimens failed to satisfy the nominal diameter required values. For characteristic strength criteria, only nineteen over sixty-five specimens complete the code requirements. However, all of the reinforcing steel bar samples complied with the minimum ultimate to yield strength ratio as specified by the code provisions. Fifty-tree over sixty-five specimens met the minimum code requirements on elongation criteria. Nevertheless, specimens from 6mm diameter mostly failed. Therefore, steel bars from Kinshasa market should not be used for the reinforcement of structural concrete without first subjecting them appropriately to tensile test, and a constant check by a Government agency is recommended.Télécharger l'article

Mbaki L.E.*

Congolese students and the NICT
As in all student environments in the world, Congolese universities are characterized by a strong presence of the New Information and Communication Technologies (NICT). In order to properly calibrate the methodology, the density and / or the intensity of computer science courses content, we used to submit our (future) students to a preparatory questionnaire. The aim of this paper is to present some results obtained with two last year’s newcomer students. Investigations focused on gauging the general culture of the respondents with a dual objective: firstly, to verify whether they really know the fundamental concepts of computer science and, secondly, to estimate their use of new numerical technologies applications. Mainly, this paper describes the key figures of the calculated indicators and proposes a discussion about concerns revealed by the survey in order to suggest possible avenues for improving students’ knowledge.Télécharger l'article

MBEKO A.P.1*, MPOYO P.2, TSHILENGE G.M.2,3, MASUMU J.M.2, 4, 5, TUAKUILA J.5, KIMPANGA P.D.5

Factors associated with misuse of antibiotics to breeders in Central Kongo province in Democratic Republic of Congo
Antibiotics are used on farms to improve production performance, prevent and treat diseases, but their use is sometimes out of the guidelines and could lead to antimicrobial resistance. The main objective of this crosssectional analytical study, conducted in 2014, was to determine the risk factors associated with the misuse of antibiotics in cattle farms in Kongo Central Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Two hundred and four (204) randomly selected breeders were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use. A logistic analysis was performed in SPSS 20 to evaluate the interactions between these factors. The result shows that the treatment duration; [(OR = 19.17); (P <0.04)] and the attitude of the farmer to the sick animal, [(OR = 25); (P <0.03))] were important factors leading to the misuse of antibiotics, which could lead to resistance. These practices could constitute a danger linked to antibiotic residues in meat with the risk of developing resistance to these molecules for man.Télécharger l'article

MASIKA Y. D.1*, YANDJU D. L M.C.2, KALONJI M.A.3

Evaluation of cyanide content in cassava flour from dry fermentation in North Kivu, D.R. Congo
In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple crop and important food source. In general, it is highly processed in one way or another before consumption. Fufu Kithabiro is a product of cassava dry fermentation processing. The fermentation is carried out by heterogeneous microorganisms (typically molds) which soften cassava and makes it pleasant for consumers. Such a dry fermentation process also typically removes cyanide from the raw cassava. Here we report the quantitative evaluation of cyanide content in fermented cassava meal samples collected from 21 sites in North Kivu. We carried out a standardized dry fermentation process with six strains of Rhizopus oryzae and found reduction of cyanide content down to 10 ppm or even 0 ppm (undetectable). According to traditional practices of cassava consumption, we find that dry fermentation with R.oryzoe detoxify indeed cassava, rendering it safe for human consumption.Télécharger l'article

MWANAMOKI M. P.1*, DUEZ P.2, STÉVIGNY C.3, TSHIOMBE V.M.4

Resistance to oxidation of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth oils store for six months.

Most existing oils are of vegetable origin. Oils extracted from seeds (such as olive, peanut, sesame, rapeseed, maize, sunflower, soybean) by chemical solvents undergo, during their conservation, oxidative alteration leading to the loss of their oxidative potential. Oils extracted by mechanical processes (pressure associated to centrifugation or not) naturally contain more antioxidant substances (tocopherols, polyphenols, etc.), than refined oils, which protect them from oxidation. Lipid oxidation is the principal factor limiting the lifetime of oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and contributes to diminishing their nutritional value. In the present study, oils extracted, from the Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth seeds, by pressure and by solvent, were compared on their fatty acids content and their oxidation resistance during six months of storage. Peroxide value increased for oils extracted by solvent whereas acid value revealed low number for both types of extracted oils. Oils extracted by pressure and stored for six months were more resistant to the oxidative stress imposed by the rancimat method. Unsaturated fatty acid content, determined by gas chromatography, showed a regression compared to saturated fatty acids, in both cases. The analysis of variance did not reveal significant difference, at 5% levels, in fatty acids content during six months of storage in both types of oils. Télécharger l'article

BAKETANA K. P. A.1, BULUBULU F.1, NDOMPETELO Z. V2*.

In vitro microbutting of Phyllanthus odontadenius Müll. Arg. Phyllanthus odontadenius, a medicinal plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceous family, is used in traditional Congolese medicine for the treatment of malaria and others associated symptoms. Nodal fragments of this species were cultured on the basal medium, Murashige and Skoog (MS) without growth regulators, supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and -benzylaminopurine (BAP) (1: 4) or NAA / BAP (1: 4) + gibberellic acid (GA3, 10μ 1) + adenine sulfate (40 mg / 1) to determine the best organogenesis in vitro. It follows from the results obtained that vitroplants were obtained only on MS medium without growth regulators. The success rate after thirty days cultures was 21.7%. Télécharger l'article

MUKOSHI K. C.*

Field evaluation of the yield of four NERICA rice cultivars under the agro-pedoclimatic conditions of Kabinda-DRC.
For peasantry of Kabinda Territory (chief town of the Lomami – DRC Province) to produce its own rice, a study on the agronomic efficiency of four hybrid rice varieties including NERICA11, NERICA4, NERICA16 and NERICA15 was conducted on three depression biotopes – savannah, pond and forest – according to a randomized block design with four-replicates at four plots each, in order to find out on the spot the ecotypes and substrates suitable for rainfed rice cultivation . The productivity of this improved rice was evaluated on the basis of the: number of panicles harvested, panicle length, number of panicle racemes, number of spikelets per panicle, spike filling rate, spikelet weight and average yield; taking into account also the vegetative parameters like tillering and heading. From the examination of the different results, it turned out that in Kabinda, where a rugged terrain dominates, there is no significant difference between the production of improved rice put in water cassettes (ponds) than on simple heavy lowland soil (savannah). While, this production is very poor indistinctly of cultivars in forest field (forest) partially shaded. Thus, despite the hindrances of cultivation in season B and the labor force at certain level, there are two trend for rice farming at Kabinda: in the pond NERICA16, NERICA15 and NERICA4 produced respectively more than 1,12t.ha-1, 1 t.ha-1 and 0, 7 t.ha-1 and in the savannah, the same cultivars above took over on NERICA11 by producing an average 0,85 t.ha-1, 0,75 t.ha-1 and 0,79 t.ha-1 without fertilizers, amendments or pesticides. Télécharger l'article

KIFUFU G. F. J1*.

Integration of fish farming in the agricultural activities of the rural population of Bagata/Kwilu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
This study deals with the possibilities offered by the farms in the territory of Bagata to integrate fish farming in the agro-pastoral system. Indeed, due to the lack of fish feed and agri by-products, fertilization of the ponds could prove to be an effective alternative to fish feeding. However, the peasants of this region totally ignore all the fertilization techniques of the ponds and depend entirely on the natural productivity for the driving of the fish farming. The integration of fish farming with certain agricultural activities is a simple and accessible fertilization technique for farmers. It cannot, however, be effective for any agricultural activity. The present research proposes to pin down various agro-pastoral activities of the population of the territory of Bagata that can be associated with fish farming. To achieve this, a survey using a questionnaire was carried out in thirty-seven farms that also practice fish farming, and a bibliographical synthesis was made to define the different strategies of the association of all these agro-pastoral and fish farming activities. It was found that several activities are compatible for agriculture-livestock-fish farming integration. These include raising chickens, pigs, ducks and rabbits, as well as crops such as cassava, maize, soybeans, amaranths, etc. As a result, different strategies are
proposed for a materialization of this technique in order to increase fish production. Télécharger l'article

BOKO L.F.1*, MUSIBONO D.E.2

Impact of industrial discharges on the quality of surface water in the industrial environment in Kinshasa, D.R. CONGO.
This study aimed to determine the level of selected contaminants in three industrial effluents as discharged into receiving waters from Limete area (Kinshasa, D R Congo). Indeed, raw effluents are discharged without any pretreatment polluting therefore receiving ecosystems. Physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, SS, BOD5) and metal elements (Aluminum, Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury and Lead) were determined in oil, cosmetic and match industries effluents. Results showed that physical (SS andBOD5) and chemical parameters values (Aluminum, Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury and Lead), were higher than those of WHO standards guidelines. The whole effluent toxicity testing using fish model confirmed that all effluents as discharged were very toxic (i.e. 0.31, 0.42 and 0.62). Télécharger l'article